GENERAL-KNOWLEDGE ARTICLES

Ancient Indian History : An Introduction

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Ancient Indian History

Palaeolithic Period

Homo sapiens first appeared in the last of this phase. Palaeolithic men used tools which are made up of lime stone. There was no Family System. Agriculture and fire were not used in this period. Ostrich Eggs were used to eat in this period. Important Palaeolithic sites in India are Bhimbetka (M.P), Hunsgi, Kurnool Caves, Narmada Valley (Hathnora, M.P), and Kaladgi Basin

 

Mesolithic Period 

Major Climatic Change happened in this period which made it possible for human beings to move to new areas. Domestication of animals and Cattle rearing started in this period. Temporary marriages were seen. People started cave paintings and animal headed human figures were carved as painting. The people of this period believed in life after death and they started burying the dead bodies.  Important Sites in India are Brahmagiri (Mysore), Narmada, Vindya, Gujarat.

 

Neolithic Period 

In India Neolithic period began in 7000 BC. In this period the wheel was discovered, which was used for transportation and the pottery making also started in this period. Permanent marriages took place and agriculture started in this period. People became more intelligent and they started agriculture. Important Neolithic Sites in India are Burzahom (Kashmir), Gufkral (Kashmir), Mehrgarh (Pakistan), Chirand (Bihar), Daojali Hading (Tripura/Assam), Koldihwa (UP), Mahagara (UP).

 

Chalcolithic Period

With the end of Neolithic period Chalcolithic period saw new sort of tools were used which were made up of Metal and the copper was the first metal which was used. A culture based on the use of stone and copper arrived and it was called the Chalcolithic Period which means the stone-copper Period. “Bronze Age” was started in this same phase. Indus Valley Civilization flourished in this period.

 

Iron Period

With the starting of Iron Age people learn the use of Iron made tools and started using the tools very frequently. Vedic Period for nearly 1000 years was observed in this period. India's Iron Age emerged in an era of transition known as the Vedic period. The Vedic period covers both the end of the Bronze Age following the collapse of the Harappa civilization. The Harappa civilization of the Indus River Valley had been complex and highly urbanized. The societies of the Vedic period were smaller, most only about the size of a village, recovering from the changes in the regional economy as well as drought, the likely culprit that collapsed India's Bronze-Age stability. Aryans came to India. Jainism and Buddhism, Mahajanapadas – Major Civilization after Indus Valley- On banks of river Ganga, Magadha Empire – Bimbisara of Haryanka Kula, Sisunga dynasty – Kalasoka (Kakavarnin), Nanda empire – Mahapadma-nanda, Dhana-nanda Persian- Greek: Alexander 327 BC all the events held in the Iron age.

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